Annual plant with deep roots, slightly lignified erect stem and petiolate leaves with a very pronounced apex. The flowers are solitary, whitish and self-fertilizing. The fruit is a semi-cartilaginous and hollow band with a color closely linked to the ripening state of the plant. Being green at first, but reaching red, purple or yellow at the end of its ripening.
The pepper crop In Spain is very widespread, reaching 20,000 hectares of sweet pepper. Of these, 45% are grown under greenhouse / mulch and provide 1,200,000 tons of production. Almost half are dedicated to export. Almería and Murcia are the two provinces with the most production in Spain.
Pepper requires deep, nutrient-rich soils. It is a moderately tolerant plant both to acidity and alkalinity of the soil. It does not resist soil stagnations and is more sensitive to salinity than tomato.
Being a thermophilic plant, it has high thermal needs, presenting problems of fruit set and deformation of fruits in climates with temperatures below 15ºC. Its Optimal growth is between 25-30ºC.
The pepper is a plant with high water needs, especially in the middle of the vegetative development and at the beginning of the ripening of its fruits. If the production is needed for industrial processes, the water can be limited at the beginning of the ripening phase so that they ripen in a more grouped way and increase the content of extra matter.