Eggplant or aubergine is an annual plant, with a deep root system and a fairly rigid growth stem. Its leaves are alternate, whole, lobed and sometimes even with spines. Its autogamous fertilization flowers usually appear either solitary or in cymes of 2 to 5 flowers. The fruits are fleshy bands with different morphology depending on the variety. Usually the black / purple and piriform forms are cultivated, but there are many varieties of different colors such as green, white or with striped tones in different colors.
Its crop In Spain occupies about 3,600 hectares, of which more of 2,700 are managed under cover in greenhouses and other systems. Production reaches 240,000 tons, with Cádiz, Almería and Málaga being the provinces with the highest production.
It is a plant that prefers rich and deep soils of moderate acidity, between pH 5.5 and 7. In alkaline soils with pH up to 8 it can grow without excessive problems. It is also a plant that is fairly tolerable to salinity problems.
Regarding the optimal climate for a balanced development and a good yield, the aubergine is very sensitive to low temperatures and does not support frost at all. Its seeds germinate optimally at high temperatures, from 24 to 32ºC. The fruit setting stage requires temperatures above 15ºC and the fruit fattening stage from 20 to 30ºC.
It is a water-demanding plant that needs good watering throughout its product cycle. Like most horticultural fruit crops, its greatest need for water appears during the fattening phase of the fruit.
The different varieties of aubergine are grouped according to the shape, color, earliness and genotype of their fruits. In general terms, there are varieties with round / oval fruit such as Redonda Morada Lisa, Redonda Violeta Lisa, Monstruosa de New andork, Reina Negra F1; other elongated or semi-elongated varieties such as Long Black Precoz, Long Violet Early, Long Black, Cava F1, Diva F1, Sultana F1 among many more.