The peach tree is a tree with a globose crown and medium vigor, between 4 to 6m. Its leaves are lanceolate, 8 to 15cm long and its petiole is short and strong. The flowers are hermaphroditic and appear before the foliation or solitary or grouped two by two. The flower changes a lot according to the variety, being small and flared or large, flat and with pink petals. Its color also differs depending on the variety, ranging from white to intense magenta. The fruits are globose in shape, although there are varieties of flattened or flat fruit. Depending on the variety, there are hairy or smooth skin, soft or hard flesh and different colors such as white, reddish or yellow.
Spain is the fourth largest peach producing country in the world, with almost 1,000,000 tons produced annually. The main regions where peaches are grown are Catalonia, Aragon, Murcia, Andalusia and the Valencian Community.
They prefer soils with a dry texture, well drained and with a pH between 6.5 and 7.5. They are sensitive to salinity and need that soil to be very fertile and have a good depth for their root system to develop properly.
The peach tree is usually a plant with low winter cold needs, although depending on the variety these needs can range from 150 hours to 1000 hours. Its flowering occurs between the beginning of February to the end of March, depending on the variety. It resists and grows well in areas of high insolation, with quality temperatures and long summers. A good temperature during the beginning of the growth of the fruit will improve its size, and a greater insolation during its maturation will produce more colored and tasty fruits.
For a good development it needs between 600 and 800mm of water per year. It is possible to grow this crop without irrigation, but its yield will be diminished if it decreases the 500mm of water per year. It is very important to maintain a good irrigation without water deficit during the weeks prior to harvest to maintain good fruit quality.
Peach is a fruit that has many problems to be kept cold. For this reason, various varieties that flowers throughout the year have been promoted to collect them in a staggered manner and avoid long storage times in the chamber. The varieties are classified according to their flesh (soft or hard), the color of the pulp (yellow or white), the hairiness of the skin (pubescent or glabrous) and the shape of the fruit (rounded or flattened). In the hard meat varieties (peaches) we have the variety Adriatica, Andross, Babandgold 5 to Babandgold 9, Carson, Miraflores and Sudanell 2, among many others. In the soft meat varieties we find, for example, Elegant Ladand, Flavorcrest, Gladands, Redtop or Springcrest. Within the varieties with skin without hair or glabrous (nectarines) various varieties are grown such as Armking, Bigtop, Fantasía, Queen Ruband or Snow Queen among others.