The grapevine is a knobby shrub or bush type of low height, which usually grows on a support that promotes lateral growth of the plant. Its trunk is stormy and forms arms in which the branches grow. On these branches appear the leaves and the cluster-shaped inflorescences of the Vine. Its flowers are hermaphroditic and very small. Its fruit is an ovoid-shaped band of different colors, depending on the variety.
The cultivated area of grapes In Spain is approximately 935,000 hectares. Of the total, about 920,000 hectares are used for the production of grapes for winemaking, producing 6,670,000 tons annually. The cultivated area of table grapes is very small in comparison and does not exceed 15,000 hectares, with a production of 300,000 tons per year.
Prefers sandy-loamy, loose and deep soils. Because they prioritize specific aromatic characteristics over generating high productions, there will be soils that produce fewer grapes, but of better quality for the wine. For example, slit and clay soils give high yields, but of lower quality. On the other hand, clay and gravelly soils, rich in calcium and magnesium, stony and with high aeration, produce grapes that give a higher quality wine.
Vine is a plant that grows well in hot summer climates, but is very sensitive to spring frosts. The annual averages should not be less than 10ºC, the optimum being 11 to 18ºC and being able to exceed 40ºC.
It is very resistant to lack of humidity, being able to produce quality wine grapes with low rainfall of 350 to 600mm per year.
A multitude of grape varieties are grown in Spain. There are many varieties and they are usually grouped according to the color of the resulting wine, whether it will be red or white. The most widely cultivated white wine grapes are Airén, Pardina, Viura, Palomino and Pedro Ximenez. The most cultivated red wine grapes, Garnacha Tinta, Bobal, Tempanillo, Monastrell and Garnacha Tintorera.