Mango is an evergreen tree that in optimal conditions can exceed 30m, although to facilitate its harvest its growth is limited by pruning. Its leaves are alternate, arranged in spirals and elliptical or lanceolate, with a variable length of 10 to 40 cm in length. Its color may vary depending on the cultivar. Its inflorescences are in the form of terminal panicles with a variable number of flowers that can go from 200 to 10,000. Male and female flowers grow within the same panicle. Its pollination is mainly entomophilous. Its fruit is a large and fleshy drupe that can contain one or more embryos, the most common being the Indian mango, which is mono-embryonic.
In Spain, mango is grown in the southern part of the country (Huelva, Cádiz, Málaga, Granada, Almería and Murcia), as well as in the Canary Islands. The total cultivated area in Spain is about 4,700 hectares, which produce approximately 40,000 tons of mangoes.
It tolerates different soils, but even if it is a tropical tree it is very rustic. It can grow in rocky and calcareous soils, in deep soils and with up to 50% clay content. It also resists well to salinity and alkaline pH's up to 8.7, although it could have chlorosis problems due to the high pH.
Mango is a tropical crop that can produce at high ambient temperatures. In areas with high humidity and continuous irrigation, it presents good production at temperatures above 40ºC. Regarding the minimum temperatures, frosts of -4ºC are capable of causing the death of the adult tree. It needs moderate winters at 10ºC, warm springs over 15ºC and summers / autumns with high temperatures to give its maximum productivity.
The mango is a plant resistant to waterlogging, which can grow correctly both with irrigations from 250mm to 5,000mm, as long as it has regular waterings during the fruit development period. In general, 1,000mm will be optimal for its growth.
In Spain two varieties are grown mainly. One called La Gomera-1 in the Canary Islands and La Gomera-3 or Espada in the south of the country. In other countries and tropical environments, other varieties are grown such as Haden, Keitt, Lippens or Irwin, amongst many others.
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