The raspberry is a shrub or bush with an underground stem or rhizome, which annually emits aerial branches. These are vigorous, erect, usually have thorns and are not capable of rooting on their own. Its root system is dense and shallow, not exceeding 30cm deep. The branches of the raspberry are biannual. During the first year they develop up to 3m in height and in the second year they fruit and die, although reflorescent varieties have been developed that can flower during the first year. Its flowers are hermaphroditic and 10mm in diameter, grouped in axillary and terminal racemes with a spiny peduncle. The fruits are a conical / ovoid polydrupe approximately 1 cm long. Every drupe is a small sphere which easily detaches from the receptacle, leaving the interior of the fruit hollow.
In Spain the raspberry crop is very minority, but there are approximately 2,500 hectares cultivated with productions of 43,000 tons per year.
The bush adapts to different pH's as long as they are in the 6 to 7.8 range. It prefers fertile soils with a sandy-loam texture, permeable and aerated, since its roots are very sensitive to waterlogging. In very sandy soils it cannot grow properly, since it needs a minimum of moisture in the soil.
Raspberry adapts very well to the cold winter, although during the spring the frosts can damage the flower beds. Although it needs a long period of cold hours to enter production, it also needs a minimum of heat to ripen the fruits correctly.
It requires short but frequent irrigations. Irrigation with micro-sprinklers are recommended.
The most cultivated varieties can be differentiated into three groups; European raspberries, purple and raspberry and blackberry hybrids. European raspberries can be reflowers like Heritage, Zeva, Lloandd George or September; or non-reflorescent like Chilcontin, Willamette, Mallin Promise or Granadina. The most widely grown purple raspberry varieties are Clandde, Columbian, Marion and Sodus. and the most widely used hybrids between raspberry and blackberry are Longanberrand, Boandsenberrand and andoungberrand.
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