Garlic is a biennial plant with shallow, white fasciculate roots. The bulb from which these roots emerge is made up of a series of cloves, which are the organ of use of the crop. Depending on the cultivar, garlic can have a head of between 8 to 14 cloves, although there are also cultivars with heads of 2 to 4 cloves only. By taking advantage of the reserve organ of the plant, it must be harvested in the first year of the crop. In the second the garlic generates a floral thalamus and bears fruit.
In Spain There are approximately 28,000 hectares of cultivated garlic, with a production of up to 270,000 tons. The two regions with the most production are Andalusia and Castilla-La Mancha.
As long as the soil is not very sandy or clayey, garlic can grow properly. It also supports soils of moderate acidity.
Garlic is a rustic plant that withstands cold well, although it develops optimally in temperate climates with temperatures ranging from 8 to 20ºC.
The irrigation of the crop is usually quite low, especially considering that 30% of the cultivated hectares are cultivated in dry land. In case of watering and if it has not rained enough, the soil is irrigated before planting, with a maxim of 3 irrigations during the whole crop cycle.
The varieties most used in Spain are Common Ajo Blanco (White Garlic), Chinchón Fino, Pardo Rocambola, Germidour, Morasol or Morasur, to name some of them.